Overview of Medical Abortion

Medical abortion is a technique that terminates a pregnancy with the use of drugs. A medicinal abortion does not involve surgery or anesthesia and may be initiated in a medical office or at home with follow-up visits to your physician. It is the safest and most effective method of birth control throughout the first trimester of pregnancy.

Medical abortion is a significant choice with significant emotional and psychological ramifications. If you’re contemplating this operation, be certain you understand the risks, potential consequences, and alternatives.

Why is it done?

The prucedures are performed for a variety of reasons. Medical abortion may be used to terminate an early miscarriage or an undesirable pregnancy. Additionally, if you have a medical condition that makes continuing a pregnancy life-threatening, you may choose a medical abortion.


Among the hazards associated with medical abortion are the following:

  • Abortion that is not complete, which may need surgical termination;
  • An unintended pregnancy that continues if the operation fails;
  • Protracted and heavy bleeding;
  • Infection;
  • Fever;
  • Uncomfortable digestive system.

Before initiating a medical abortion, you must be confident about your choice. If you choose to prolong the pregnancy after using abortion pills, your pregnancy may face serious challenges.

Unless problems occur, medical abortion has been found to have no effect on subsequent pregnancies.

If you are unable to have a medical abortion due to the following:

  • Are pregnant at an excessively advanced stage. If you’ve been pregnant for more than nine weeks, you should not seek a medical abortion (after the start of your last period). After seven weeks of pregnancy, several methods of medical abortion are prohibited.
  • Possess a uterine device (IUD).
  • Suspect pregnancies occurring outside the uterus (ectopic pregnancy).
  • Suffer from a variety of medical problems. Among them include bleeding problems; certain heart or blood vessel illnesses; severe liver, kidney, or lung disease; and an uncontrolled seizure condition.
  • Take an anticoagulant or some steroid medicines.
  • Are unable to return for follow-up appointments or lack access to emergency care.
  • Are allergic to one or more of the drugs prescribed.

Women who are unable to undergo a medicinal abortion may choose a surgical procedure called dilation and curettage (D&C).

Preparation method

Consult your doctor if you’re contemplating a medical abortion. Quite likely, your physician will:

  • Conduct a comprehensive examination of your medical history and current state of health.
  • A physical checkup will confirm your pregnancy.
  • Conduct an ultrasound test to establish the pregnancy is not outside the uterus (ectopic pregnancy) or that it is not a tumor that formed in the uterus (molar pregnancy)
  • Conduct blood and urine examinations
  • Describe the procedure’s operation, probable risks and problems, and possible adverse effects.

Making the choice to have a medical abortion is a significant one. Consult your spouse, family, and friends, if possible. Consult your physician, a spiritual advisor, or a counselor to get answers to your concerns, to assist you in weighing your options, and to help you contemplate the procedure’s potential influence on your future.

Bear in mind that no doctor is obligated to perform an elective abortion, and that in certain states, specific legal procedures and waiting periods must be followed prior to receiving an elective abortion. There are no specific legal requirements or waiting periods if you are undergoing an abortion procedure due to a miscarriage.


Abortion medically is not a surgical procedure and does not need anesthesia. In a medical office or clinic, the process may be initiated. Medical abortions may also be performed at home, but you should still see your doctor to ensure there are no problems.

In the course of the medicinal interruption od pregnancy

The following drugs are available for medical abortion:

  1. Mifepristone (Mifeprex) plus Misoprostol (Cytotec) for oral administration. This is the most often performed medical abortion procedure. These drugs should typically be taken within seven weeks after the start of your previous menstruation.

Mifepristone (mif-uh-PRIS-tone) is a progesterone antagonist that thins the uterine lining and prevents the embryo from implanting and developing. Misoprostol (my-so-PROS-tol), a different kind of drug, causes the uterus to contract and the embryo to be expelled through the vagina.

If you select this kind of medical abortion, you will most likely get the mifepristone at the office or clinic of your physician. Then, hours or days later, you’ll most likely take the misoprostol at home.

You will need to return to your doctor about one week later to ensure the abortion was successful. The Food and Drug Administration has deemed this regimen to be safe (FDA).

  1. Mifepristone administered orally and Misoprostol administered vaginally, buccally, or sublingually. This form of medical abortion employs the same drugs as the previous one, but with a slowly dissolving misoprostol pill put in your vagina (vaginal route), in your mouth between your teeth and cheek (buccal route), or under your tongue (sublingual route) (sublingual route).

Vaginal, buccal, or sublingual administration minimizes adverse effects and may be more effective. These drugs must be taken within nine weeks after your previous period’s beginning day.

  1. Methotrexate and Misoprostol in the vaginal area. Methotrexate (Otrexup, Rasuvo, and others) is seldom used in elective, undesired pregnancies, while it is still used in extrauterine pregnancies (ectopic pregnancies). This sort of medical abortion must be performed within seven weeks after the start day of your last menstruation, and the abortion may take up to a month to complete. Methotrexate is administered intravenously or vaginally, and misoprostol is administered at the patient’s home.
  2. Misoprostol used alone in the vaginal syringe. When taken before the embryo’s ninth week of gestation, vaginal misoprostol alone may be successful. However, misoprostol used alone in the vaginal canal is less successful than other forms of medical abortion.

Vaginal bleeding and abdominal cramps are caused by the drugs used in medical abortion. Additionally, they might result in the following:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Diarrhea
  • Headache

You may be prescribed pain medication both during and after the medical abortion. Additionally, antibiotics may be prescribed, but infection after the procedure is uncommon.

Your doctor will inform you of the expected level of discomfort and bleeding based on the stage of your pregnancy. You may be unable to go on with your typical daily routine at this period, although bed rest is unlikely. Ensure that you have a enough supply of absorbent sanitary pads on hand.

If you want to undergo a medical abortion at home, you will need access to a physician who can answer questions over the phone and to emergency services. Additionally, you must be capable of recognizing difficulties.

Immediately after the operation of medical abortion

Following a medical abortion, some signs and symptoms may need medical treatment.

  • Severe bleeding – soak two or more pads an hour for a total of two hours
  • Abdominal or back discomfort that is excruciating
  • Affection that lasts longer than 24 hours
  • Urinary discharge with a foul odor

Following a medical abortion, you’ll need to see your doctor for a follow-up appointment to ensure adequate healing and to assess your uterus size, bleeding, and any symptoms of infection. Avoid vaginal intercourse or the use of tampons for two weeks after the abortion to minimize the risk of infection.

Your doctor will likely inquire as to whether you are still pregnant, if you saw the gestational sac or embryo being expelled, how much bleeding occurred, and whether you are still bleeding. If your doctor detects an incomplete abortion or a continuing pregnancy, you may need an ultrasound and, if necessary, surgical abortion.

You’re likely to feel a variety of feelings after a medical abortion, including relief, grief, sorrow, and guilt. These are common sentiments. Speaking with a counselor about them may be beneficial.


Ovulation often happens within two weeks after a medical abortion, and another pregnancy may develop even before your period arrives. Consult your doctor prior to the abortion regarding immediate post-abortion contraception.